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Net Present Value (NPV): Definition, Benefits, Formula, and Example

Preparing a financial report is critical for both business owners or even homemakers. Numerous words are critical when preparing financial reports: the net present value, or NPV. Understanding NPV in further detail will assist you in assessing the greatest financial selections.

By estimating the net present value, you can improve your financial management and maximize future gains. Therefore, let us explore net present value in more detail. Start with its definition, advantages, formula, and examples to help you make better business choices in the future.

Read more: What is ERP and Why is It Important for Businesses?

Table of Contents

Understanding Net Present Value (NPV)

The net present value (NPV) is the difference between the present value of cash inflows and outflows over a certain period. In capital budgeting and investment planning, NPV used to determine the profitability of a proposed investment or project. The net present value (NPV) is the outcome of computations used to determine the present value of a future stream of payments.

This analysis is often used by businesses in conjunction with a cash flow prediction to offer an overview of the advantages of an investment. Suppose the net present value of a project or investment is positive. In that case, the anticipated revenue from the project or investment will surpass the anticipated expenses. On the other hand, if the net present value is negative, the projection will lose.

As a result, net present value is often computed by a manager who is an expert or has a keen analysis of revenue estimates for the next several years. If the revenue projection is significantly different from the estimate, the NPV value is incorrect.

Benefits of Using NPV

NPV serves a variety of roles or provides significant advantages in the sector of business or inside a corporation. Several functions of net present value include the following:

  1. In business, this NPV calculation used to determine a company’s capacity and opportunity to manage investments over the following several years. If the investment generates a profit, the plan will carried out. On the other hand, if the investment prediction ends in a loss in the future, the investment will probably abandoned. even if it seems beneficial at first sight.
  2. The net present value analysis used to assess the value of an investment, a project, or any sequence of cash flows. It is a comprehensive statistic since it incorporates all revenues and capital costs connected with an investment into its Free Cash Flow (FCF).
  3. Additionally, NPV may assist businesses in implementing efficient budget management. As a result, NPV may also thought of as the expected value of future investment gains.

Net Present Value Formula

The NPV calculation method changes according to the quantity and consistency of future cash flows. The following formula is to calculate NPV.

Source: jexo.io

Net Present Value Calculation Example

A $1,000 project will generate three $500, $300, and $800 cash flows over the following three years. Assume that the project has no salvage value and that the required rate of return is 8%. The following formula used to determine the net present value of the project:

NPV formula

The needed rate of return is employed as the discount rate to account for the time worth of money. A dollar earned now is worth more than a dollar earned tomorrow. Future cash flows must lowered when computing the present value of future value to account for the delay.


Net present value, or NPV, is one of the most appropriate methods for determining the current worth of a project. This calculation will extremely valuable in ensuring that your activities are following the future objectives you wish to attain. This will also simplify businesses to measure inflows without disregarding cash flows while investments are underway.

You may compute NPV manually using the approach described above. However, to make things simpler, you may use HashMicro’s Accounting Software. Of course, with the help of this system, your business may automate cash flow management and financial report preparation more quickly and efficiently.

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Vania Marsha Kristiani
A Junior Content Writer at HashMicro who Interested in Digital and Growth. Also a life-time learner who always strive to learn and grow.


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